HERBS AND SPICES
Shallot, hom-lek, หอมเล็ก, or hom daeng, หอมแดง, Allium ascalonicum, is the zesty small red onion flavored in Thai cooking.
Garlic, krathiam, กระเทียม, Thai garlic has small cloves covered with a peel that is not tough. Its fragrance is stronger than that of large cloved garlic, In making fried garlic.the peel is usually not removed entirely so that only the flesh remains. Some of the peel is left on the clove, for it is in the peel that the fragrance resides.
Galangal, kha,ข่า, Alpinia galangal, is a largar and lighter-colored relative of ginger and has its own distinctive taste.
Lemon grass, ta-khrai,ตะไคร้, Cymbopgon citratus, is an aromatic grey-green grass. The bases of the stems are used in cookery.
Kaffir lime, makrut, มะกรูด, Citrus hystrix, is a green fruit with wrinkled skin. The rind and the leaves are used in cookery.
Ginger, khing, ขิง, Zingiber officinale, grows from an underground stem, or rhisome. Mature ginger stems are buff colored; young or fresh ginger, khing on, ขิงอ่อน, is white and is eaten fresh, and pickled as well as cooked.
Sweet basil, horapha, โหระพา, is an attractive plant with deep green leaves and often reddish stems. It has a taste reminiscent of anise.
Bay leaf, bai kra-wan, ใบกระวาน, is an elliptical leaf about 7 cm. long, grey-green on the bottom, having a brownish cast on the top,which is sold dried in the market.
Cinnamon, opechoey, อบเชย, Cinnamomun spp, is the bark of a number of species of trees in this genus, classified in the laurel family. The types that grow in Southeast Asia are known in commerce as cassias. The barks, which are generally reddish-brown, after being peeled off from around the branch, tend to roll themselves back up, and so have a scroll like appearance. For retail sale in Thai markets, the bark is cut into strips about 1 cm. across and 8-10cm. long and such strips are the basis for the measurements given in the recipes. Bofore use, the bark should roasted to bring out its aroma.